1787 to 1799

Northwest Ordinance (1787) Text Background

Tariff Act (1789) Background

Judiciary Act (1789) Text Background

Naturalization Act (1790) Text Background

Copyright Act (1790) Text Background

Southwest Ordinance (1790) Text Background

Bank of the United States (1791) Chapter X Chapter XI Background

Coinage Act (1792) Background and Text

Militia Acts (1792) Text of First Act Text of Second Act Background

Anti-Injunction Act (1793) Background

Fugitive Slave Act (1793) Text Background

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) Text Background


1800 to 1849

Judiciary Act of 1801 (aka Midnight Judges Act) Text Background

Act Prohibitiing Importation of Slaves (1807) Text Background

Embargo Act of 1807 Text (2 Stat. pp. 451-453) Background

Nonintercourse Act (1809) (Replacement for Embargo Act)  Text and Background

Missouri Compromise (1820) Text Background

Indian Removal Act (1830) Text Background


1850 to 1899

Compromise of 1850 Text Background

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (part of the Compromise of 1850)  Text Background

Kansas Nebraska Act (1854) Text Background

First and Second Confiscation Acts (1861, 1862) 1861 Text 1862 Text Background

Freedmen's Bureau Act (1865) Text Background

Homestead Act (1862) Text Background

Militia Act (1862) Text Background

Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) Text Background

Enrollment Act (1863) (Civil War Military Draft Act) Text Background

Civil Rights Act of 1866 Text Background

Reconstruction Acts (1867)

Ku Klux Klan Act (1871)

Force Act (1871)

Mail Fraud and False Representation Statutes (1872)

Yellowstone National Park Act (1872) Text Background

Coinage Act (1873)

Comstock Act (1873)

Civil Rights Act (1875)

Bland-Allison Act (1878)

Posse Comitatus Act (1878)

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Text Background

Pendleton Act (1883) Text Background

Indian General Allotment Act (Dawes Act) (1887)

Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Text Background

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) Text Background

Income Tax and the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act (1894)



1900 to 1909

National Reclamation Act of 1902

Panama Canal Purchase Act (1902)

Militia Act (Dick Act) (1903)

Antiquities Act of 1906

Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

Federal Employers' Liability Act (1908)

Corporate Income Tax Act of 1909

Gold Standard Act (1900)


1910 to 1919

Mann Act (1910)

Federal Income Tax (1913)

Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Narcotics Act (1914)

Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)

Clayton Act (1914)

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act (1916) Text Background

Vocational Education Act (1917)

Selective Service Act (1917)

Trading with the Enemy Act (1917)

Espionage Act (1917) and Sedition Act (1918)

National Park Service Act (1916)

National Prohibition Act (1919)


1920 to 1929

Bonus Bill (1924)

Merchant Marine Act of 1920

Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929

Mineral Leasing Act (1920)


1930 to 1939

Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act (1930)

Norris-Laguardia Act (1932)

Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932)

Federal Deposit Insurance Acts (1933)

Farm Credit Act (1933)

National Guard Acts (1933)

Glass-Steagall Act (1933)

National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) Text Background

Tennessee Valley Authority Act (1933) Text Background

Securities Act (1933)

Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933)

Communications Act (1934)

Securities Exchange Act (1934)

Gold Reserve Act (1934)

Neutrality Acts (four acts)(1935-1939)

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

National Labor Relations Act (1935)

Motor Carrier Act (1935)

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935

Rural Electrification Act (1936)

Social Security Act (1935) Text Background

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (1935)

Aid to Dependent Children (1935)

Commodity Exchange Act (1936)

Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act (1936)

United States Housing Act of 1937

Civil Aeronautics Act (1938)

Natural Gas Act (1938)

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)

Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)

Federal Unemployment Tax Act (1939)

Hatch Act (1939)


1940 to 1949

Lend-Lease Act (1941) Text Background

Veterans' Preference Act (1944)

United Nations Participation Act (1945)

Employment Act (1946)

Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (1946)

Export-Import Bank Act (1945)

Central Intelligence Agency Act (1949)

Administrative Procedure Act (1946)

Atomic Energy Act (1946)

Federal Tort Claims Act (1946)

Farmers Home Administration Act (1946)

Hill-Burton Act (1946)

Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act (1946)

Foreign Service Act (1946)

Taft-Hartley Act (1947)

National Security Act (1947)

Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1948)

Economic Cooperation Act (Marshall Plan) (1948)

United States Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948)


1950 to 1959

Federal Civil Defense Act (1950)

Mutual Security Act (1951)

Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act) (1952)

Small Business Act (1953)

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (1953)

Communist Control Act (1954)

Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act (1954)

Internal Revenue Act (1954)

National Housing Act (1955)

National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956) Text Background

Civil Rights Act (1957)

Federal Aviation Act (1958)

National Aeronautics and Space Act (1958)


1960 to 1969

Peace Corps Act (1961)

Foreign Assistance Act (1961)

Arms Control and Disarmament Act (1961) and Amendments

Bribery Act (1962)

Clean Air Act (1963)

Equal Pay Act (1963)

Economic Opportunity Act (1964)

Urban Mass Transportation Act (1964)

Food Stamp Act (1964)

Civil Rights Act (1964) Text Background

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)

Solid Waste Disposal Act (1965)

Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965)

National Emissions Standards Act (1965)

Medicaid Act (1965)

Social Security Amendments of 1965 (estabishing Medicare) Text Background

Higher Education Act (1965)

Voting Rights Act (1965) Text Background

Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965

Highway Beautification Act (1965)

Highway Safety Act (1966)

Freedom of Information Act (1966)

National Historic Preservation Act (1966)

National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966

National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (1966)

Public Broadcasting Act (1967)

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)

Fair Housing Act (1968)

Gun Control Act (1968)

Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968)

Alcoholic and Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (1968)

Consumer Credit Protection Act (1969)

National Environmental Policy Act (1969)

Truth in Lending Act (1969)


1970 to 1979

Controlled Substances Act (1970)

Rail Passenger Service Act (1970)

Plant Variety Protection Act (1970)

Organized Crime Control Act (1970)

Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971)

Federal Election Campaign Act (1971)

Title IX, Education Amendments (1972)

Federal Advisory Committee Act (1972)

Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)

War Powers Resolution (1973)

Domestic Volunteer Service Act (VISTA) (1973)

Endangered Species Act (1973)

Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (1974)

Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act (1974)

Privacy Act (1974)

Legal Services Corporation Act (1974)

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (1974)

Trade Act (1974)

Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1975)

Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (1975)

Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)

Copyright Act (1976)

Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976)

Government in the Sunshine Act (1976)

National Forest Management Act (1976)

International Emergency Economic Powers Act (1977)

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977)

Department of Energy Organization Act (1977)

Community Reinvestment Act (1977)

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977)

Patent Act (1977)

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978)

Civil Service Reform Act (1978)

Bankruptcy Reform Act (1978)

Contract Disputes Act (1978)

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)

Ethics in Government Act (1978)

National Energy Conservation Policy Act (1978)

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (1978)


1980 to 1989

Staggers Rail Act (1980)

Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980)

Drug Abuse Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act (1980)

Paperwork Reduction Act (1980)

Regulatory Flexibility Act (1980)

Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982)

Sentencing Reform Act (1984)

Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984)

Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (1984)

Shipping Act (1984)

Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act (1985)

Tax Reform Act (1986)

Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1986)

Computer Security Act of 1987

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (1986)

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986

McKinney-Vento Act (1988)

Civil Liberties Act (1988)

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988)

Whistleblower Protection Laws (1989)

Flag Protection Act (1989)


1990 to 1999

Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (1990)

Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

Negotiated Rulemaking Act (1990)

Weapons of Mass Destruction Control Act (1992)

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (1993)

Religious Freedom Restoration Act (1993)

North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (NAFTA) (1993)

Family and Medical Leave Act (1993)

Federal Blackmail Statute (1994)

Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act (1994)

Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (1994)

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994)

Violence against Women (1994)

Shipping Act (1995)

Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995)

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996)

Communications Decency Act (1996)

Defense of Marriage Act (1996)

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996)

Food Quality Protection Act of 1996

Taxpayer Bill of Rights III (1998)

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (1998)


2000 to present

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (2000)

USA Patriot Act (2001)

No Child Left Behind (2001)

Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (2002)

Department of Homeland Security Act (2002)

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) (2010)

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010)



US Senate

US House of Representatives

Library of Congress



Library of Congress "THOMAS"


THOMAS was launched in January of 1995, at the inception of the 104th Congress. The leadership of the 104th Congress directed the Library of Congress to make federal legislative information freely available to the public. Since that time THOMAS has expanded the scope of its offerings to include Congressional activity and schedules, past and present bills and resolutions, committee information and calendar, and ratified treaty text.  The database begins at the 90th Congress (1967).  Research on any piece of United States legislation should begin here!


The Avalon Project at Yale Law School

Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy


The Avalon Project, supported by Yale University, houses a huge database of digital documents relevant to the fields of Law, History, Economics, Politics, Diplomacy and Government.  This site is highly recommended for research papers for both United States Government and American History courses.

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